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5416--khoa-h-c-v-c-ng-ngh-th-i-k-nh-h-nla-gi

Nhà Hán (206 TCN-220) là một triều đại lịch sử trong thời kỳ cổ đại Trung Hoa, được chia thành ba giai đoạn chính, giữa nhà Tây Hán (206 TCN- 9, định đô ở Trường An), tiếp nối là nhà Tân (9-23) do Vương Mãng cướp ngôi, và nhà Đông Hán (25-220, định đô ở Lạc Dương và được thiên đô về Hứa Xương sau năm 196), đã chứng kiến một trong những bước tiến bộ quan trong nhất trong lịch sử phát minh của người Trung Hoa.

Trong thời kỳ này, thuật luyện kim đã có những bước phát triển tiến bộ. Ngay từ thời kỳ nhà Chu (1050-256 TCN), người ta đã phát minh ra những lò đúc gang hay sắt, và đến thời kỳ nhà Hán, người ta đã thấy những cách rèn mới mẻ và dễ dàng hơn so với những công nghệ lỗi thời trước đó. Với những chiếc giếng được đào sâu vào trong lòng đất, người Trung Hoa không chỉ dùng chúng để lấy nước mặn mà còn dùng các kỹ thuật thủ công như dựng dàn tre làm những đường ống dẫn vào lò đúc để làm nhiên liệu. Kỹ thuật luyện kim tiếp tục được phát triển với việc sử dụng lực nước đẩy, những nông cụ bằng sắt được phân bố rộng rãi tạo sự phát triển cho ngành nông nghiệp. Đối với việc cày cấy, kiểu trồng thẳng hàng, xới đất bằng cày ba lưỡi giúp đất được tơi xốp và nhiều cách giữ hạt giống mới được phát minh trong thời nhà Hán, số lượng sản xuất càng ngày càng nhiều giúp duy trì sự tăng trưởng dân số. Các hệ thống kênh thủy lợi dẫn nước được cải thiện với sự phát triển của máy bơm dây chuyền chuyển động bằng sức nước, có thể vận chuyển nước từ dưới thấp lên cao. Sức nước cũng được sử dụng dùng cho việc xay hạt trong nông nghiệp và dùng trong việc luyện kim.

Chất lượng cuộc sống được cải thiện với nhiều phát minh của người Hán. Họ đã dùng các thẻ tre để viết bằng cách cuộn chúng lại với nhau, thế kỷ thứ 2 đã phát minh ra quy trình làm giấy, giấy giá rẻ vừa lại dễ dàng để sản xuất. Xe cút kít phát minh để hỗ trợ trong vận chuyển vật nặng. Chu ấn thuyền có đuôi gắn trên bánh lái lái cho phép người Hán vượt biển ra khỏi hồ và các con sông và trên nội địa.

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5416--khoa-h-c-v-c-ng-ngh-th-i-k-nh-h-nla-gi.txt · Last modified: 2018/11/07 17:09 (external edit)